Anarchy is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions. These are often described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more specifically as institutions based on non-hierarchical or free associations.
Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful. While anti-statism is central, anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of all human relations, including not only the state but also family, work, education, and religion.
Anarchism is usually considered a far-left ideology and much of its economics and legal philosophy reflect anti-authoritarian interpretations of Marxism. As anarchism does not offer a fixed body of doctrine from a single particular world view, many types and traditions of anarchism exist and varieties often overlap.
Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism or similar dual classifications.
The etymology of anarchism derives from ancient Greek word anarkhia. Anarkhia meant “without a ruler” (from the privative alpha prefix an- + arkhos ruler) and referred to a society “not having rulers”. The suffix -ism denotes the ideological current that favours anarchy. The first known use of this word was in 1642.
Various factions within the French Revolution labelled opponents as anarchists although few shared many views of later anarchists. There would be many revolutionaries of the early 19th century who contributed to the anarchist doctrines of their time. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon was the first self-proclaimed anarchist (and socialist) in 1839 when he co-founded Printing Workers’ Mutual Aid Society in France; he later founded the Mutualist Philosopher Society in Lyon in 1846 which adopted his own name for anarchist thought Mutualisme.
In the mid-19th century, revolutionary Syndicalism appeared concurrently with Marxism; it involved worker class self-organisation and strikes to achieve worker control over production as well as advocating worker rights and solidarity against capitalist interests; French Syndicalists such as Fernand Pelloutier and Georges Sorel supported such ideas which found expression also in Italian Syndicalism led by Michele Bianchi and Ugo Fedeli; Spanish Syndicalists such as Manuel Salgado were influenced by French Syndicalism while Argentine Syndicalists such as FORA were influenced by Italian Syndicalism; all these currents supported workers owning means of production rather than there being private ownership with workers employed by others; they saw syndicates as being key mediating bodies between workers and society at large while also promoting economic democracy rather than socialism which they saw controlled by centralising elites; syndicalists also saw general strikes and other forms direct action as being key methods for workers to take control over production themselves with workplace democracy being another key ideal; syndicalism continues to be an influence on anarchist thought today particularly anarcho-syndicalism which advocates similar ideas but within an explicitly anarchist framework while other currents are critical of syndicalist ideas regarding organisation seeing them as too centralising..
Anarcho-communism developed out of radical socialist currents after the French Revolution particularly Babeuf’s Conspiracy of Equals which advocated common ownership of land and goods with distribution based on need rather than work done while earlier utopian socialists such as Thomas More had advocated similar ideas; it emerged fully formed in theory after Bakunin’s split from Marxism at Marx’s First International where Marx advocate centralisation while Bakunin argued for federalisation instead; anarcho-communism proposes that worker cooperatives manage industrial production while distributive cooperatives manage exchange and consumption under direct democratic control with equal distribution according to need rather than work done like under Marxian socialism leading some to characterise it as “Worker’s Council Socialism”; it was first practically implemented during the Russian Revolution in areas held by anarchists before Bolshevik centralisation led to their suppression.
Animations explaining Anarcho communism
In conclusion, Anarchy is not a bitcoin however it is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions which are often described as stateless societies.