The Bitcoin network is powered by a decentralized network of computers around the world that keep track of all Bitcoin transactions. Transactions are then verified and collected into blocks by miners.
Miners are rewarded with newly created bitcoins and transaction fees for their work.
This system has worked well for a number of years, but it has also been criticized for being slow and expensive. Transactions can take hours to confirm, and fees can be quite high.
One proposed solution to these problems is called the Lightning Network. The Lightning Network is a second layer on top of the Bitcoin network that allows for much faster and cheaper transactions.
The Lightning Network has been in development for a number of years, but it is still not ready for widespread use. Some people think that the Lightning Network is the only way to scale Bitcoin and make it usable for everyday transactions.
Others think that the Lightning Network is not necessary and that Bitcoin can be scaled with on-chain solutions such as Segregated Witness (SegWit). SegWit was activated on the Bitcoin network in August 2017 and has already helped to reduce transaction fees and speed up confirmations.
There is also a third camp who believe that Bitcoin should be divided into two separate currencies: one for everyday use and one for investment. This proposal, known as a fork, would split the current Bitcoin blockchain into two separate chains.
Supporters of this idea say that it would make Bitcoin more user-friendly and accessible to new users. Critics say that it would create confusion and could lead to two different currencies with different values.
So far, there has been no consensus on how to scale Bitcoin, and no major forks have occurred. However, with SegWit now activated, there is a chance that a fork could happen in the future if the community cannot agree on how to move forward with scaling.