The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a Turing complete virtual machine that allows any decentralized application (DApp) to run on the Ethereum blockchain. The EVM makes it possible for developers to create smart contracts and decentralized applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of fraud or third party interference.
The EVM is made up of two parts: the instruction set, which is a set of operations that can be performed by the EVM, and the gas model, which defines how much computational resources are required to execute each instruction.
The EVM instruction set is based on an assembly language called Ethereum Virtual Machine Code (EVM code). This code is compiled into bytecode, which can be executed by the EVM.
The gas model defines how much computational resources are required to execute each instruction in the EVM code. The amount of gas required to execute a transaction is proportional to the amount of computational resources required to execute the transaction.
The EVM supports a variety of programming languages, including Solidity, Serpent, LLL, and Mutan. Solidity is the most popular language for developing smart contracts on Ethereum.
The EVM is designed to be stack-based, meaning that data is pushed onto and popped off of a stack in memory in order to execute instructions. This design makes the EVM simple and easy to understand.
However, it also limits the types of operations that can be performed by the EVM.
For example, the EVM cannot natively support floating point arithmetic. This means that any computation that requires floating point arithmetic must be implemented in software running on top of the EVM.
Despite these limitations, the EVM is still a powerful tool for developers building decentralized applications on Ethereum. The EVM makes it possible to create applications that are trustless and free from third party interference.